Main Article Content
As the largest organ of the human body, the skin is colonized by a variety of microorganisms, most of which are harmless and have benefits for the host. This microbiota contributes to the metabolism and immunity of the host. The human microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, viruses and archaea, which inhabit various areas of the body. Most of the microbiota resides in the intestine, only a small part of which inhabit epithelial surfaces such as the mouth, airways, vagina and skin. The total number of microbiota on the surface of the skin is usually in the range 104 to 106 cells per cm2. Psoriasis is one of the most common immune-mediated inflammatory skin diseases. The prevalence of disease has been reported, with a range of 0.09- 11.43% by the WHO Global Report 2016. To date the causes of this disease are not fully understood, genetic and environmental interactions play an important role in disease progression. Recently, immunological approaches have helped to clarify the pathophysiology of the disease significantly. The skin microbiota has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of lichenified plaque formation in psoriasis. Corynebacterium, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, and also Streptococcus have been identified as the main microbiota. It has not been determined whether these changes in the microbiota are a cause or consequence of psoriasis. For this reason, further research on selective modulation of the skin microbiota is needed. This systematic review aims to elucidate the correlation between the microbiome and pathogenesis of psoriasis and the modulation of the microbiota that could lead to possible therapeutic interventions.
Keywords: Microbiota, Psoriasis, Skin
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-SA 4.0) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.
- Alekseyenko, A.V., Perez-Perez, G.I., DeSouza, A.,Strober, B., Gao, Z,. Bihan, M., Li, K. Methé, B.A,. Blaser, M.J. (2013). Community differentiation of the cutaneousmicrobiota in psoriasis. Microbiome, 1,31.
- Assarsson, M., Duvetorp, A., Dienus, O., Söderman, J., Seifert, O. (2018). Significant Changes in the Skin Microbiome in Patientswith Chronic Plaque Psoriasis after Treatment with Narrow band Ultraviolet B. Acta Dermatlogy Venereol, 98,428–436.
- Carroll KC.,Butel JS., Morse SA., Meitzner T., editors. (2013). Normal Human Microbiota. In: Brooks GF.. United States America. The Mcgraw-HillsCompanies. Medical Microbiology, 65-72.
- Charbonneau DL., Song Y., Cheng XL. (2010). In: Farage MA, Miller KW, Maibach HI editors. TextbookofAgingSkin. German. SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg. Agingskinmicrobiology, 1473-85.
- Darlenski, R., Hristakieva, E., Aydin, U., Gancheva, D., Gancheva, T., Zheleva, A., Gadjeva, V., Fluhr, J.W. (2018). Epidermal barrier and oxidative stress parameter simprove during in 311 nm narrow band UV B phototherapy of plaque type psoriasis. Journal of Dermatological Science.
- Fry L., Baker BS., Powles AV., Fahlen A., Engstrand L. (2013). Is Chronic Plaque Psoriasis Triggeredbymicrobiota in the Skin?. The British Journal of Dermatology, 169(1), 47-52
- Griffiths CE., Baker JN. (2007). Pathogenesis and clinical features of psoriases. The Lancet. Available from: DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61128-3
- Kong HH. (2019). Skin microbiome: genomics-based insights into the diversity and role of skin microbes. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 17(6), 320-8. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/21376666.
- Martin, R., Henley, J.B., Sarrazin, P., Seite, S. (2015).Skin Microbiome in Patientswith Psoriasis Beforeand After Balneo therapy at the Thermal Care Center of La Roche-Posay. Journal Drugs Dermatology, 14,1400–1405.
- Narang, T.. Dogra, S., Kaur, I., Kanwar, A.J. (2007). Malassezia and psoriasis: Koebner’s phenomenon or direct causation?. Journal of European Academy of Dermatolology and Venereology, 21, 1111– 1112.
- Nina N., Schommer., Gallo RL. (2013). Structure and function of the human skin microbiome. Trends in Microbiology, 21(12), 660-8. Availablefrom: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/24238601
- Paulino, L.C., Tseng, C.H., Strober, B.E., Blaser, M.J. (2006). Molecular analysis of fungal microbiota in samples from healthy human skin and psoriaticl esions. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 44,2933–2941.
- Prihatini., Aryati., Hetty. (2007). Identifikasi cepat mikroorganisme menggunakan alat vitek-2. Indonesia: Indonesia journal of clinical pathology and medica llaboratory, 13(3),129-32.Available from:https://indonesianjournalofclinicalpathology.org/in dex.php/patologi/article/view/915
- Russell CW., Russell SW. (2017). Meta analysis of skin microbiome: New link between skin microbiot adiversity and skin health with proposal tousethis as a future mechanism to determine whether cosmetic products damage the skin. Cosmetics ,4(14),1-19. Availablefrom: https://www.mdpi.com/ 2079-9284/4/2/14
- Welsh, A.L. (1934). Specificityof a streptococcus isolated from patients with pemphigus: Preliminary report. Dermatology and Syphilology, 30,611–630.
- Zeeuwen PL., Kleerebezem M., Timmerman HM., Schalkwijk J. (2013). Microbiome and skin diseases. Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 13(5), 514-20. Available from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/239 74680